Notes on Washington’s Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, [before 28 April 1793]

I. Notes on Washington’s Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France

On the Questions of Apr. 18. 93.1

1st. Principle. the people the source of all authority
       the Constituent2 in all treaties
  this answers Qu. II. III. IV. V. VI. XII.
2d. Principle. the Legislature alone can declare war
  the question of Guarantee is a question of war.
  this answers Qu. VII. VIII. IX–X.
Qu. XI. Art. 17. French ships of war & privateers with prizes3 may come & go freely, <with prizes>
  English do.4 may not. If they put in distress, must go as soon as possible
   Dutch. 22.5. Prussian. 19.5
Art. 22. English privateers may not be fitted out, nor sell prizes here.
  no stipuln that French do. may. nor that French ships of war may.

Armed neutrality

  • free vessels free goods et econtre.
  • free commerce to places not besieged.
  • certificate of officer of convoy prevents searches.
  • contraband defined.

Vattel. 2. 157. the validity of treaties
  158. lezion does not annul them.
  159. duties of nations in this <particular> matter
  160. nullity of treaties ruinous to a state.
  163. oblign to observe treaties
  164. the violn of a treaty is an injury.

157. 158. 159. 163. 219. 220. 233.

MS (DLC: TJ Papers, 84: 14559); written entirely in TJ’s hand on one side of a small sheet; undated; printed literally. Recorded in SJPL under 18 Apr. 1793: “notes on those questions [relative to France & England]” (see Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, enclosed in George Washington to the Cabinet, 18 Apr. 1793).

  1. Heading interlined at a later date.
  2. Word written over “principal,” erased.
  3. Preceding two words interlined.
  4. Word written over “shi,” erased.
  5. This line interlined.